UKCA mark

UKCA Marking

Following the UK’s exit from the European Union, a new certification mark has been introduced to replace the CE mark for products sold in Great Britain ...


IET Code of Practice 5th edition

5th Edition Code of Practice

Details on the 5th edition update to the IET Code of Practice for In-Service Inspection and Testing of Electrical Equipment ...


selling home made lamps

Requirements for Making and Selling Lamps

We often receive enquiries for our PAT testing courses from people looking to start a small business making and selling small electrical items, typically lamps and ...


fuse operation characteristics

BS 1362 Fuse Operation Characteristics

It may not be immediately apparent, but a 13A rated fuse is not designed to actually blow at 13A. In fact a 13A fuse will allow a current of 20A ...


20A BS1362 fuse

20A Fuse

BS 1362, the British Standard for plug fuses, states: “The rated current may be any value not exceeding 13A ...


using adaptors for PAT testing

PAT Testing with Adaptors

For PAT testing equipment that does not have a standard 13A BS1363 plug, an adaptor is required to connect the appliance to the PAT tester ...


dangers of socket covers

Socket Covers

The Department of Health has recently issued an alert notice to warn of the dangers of using socket inserts ...


Primtest 250 PAT tester

Seaward Primetest 250 Vs Megger PAT150

Comparison of the Seaward Primetest 250 and the Megger PAT150 PAT Testers ...


dangerous Chinese water heater

Dangerous Water Heater

The heater consists of a plastic housing with two metal plates separated by a gap of about 5mm. The supply cord is two core 0.5mm2 fitted with a NEMA type plug ...


size guage for BS1393 plug

Plug Pin Gauge

This simple piece of laminated card is cleverly designed to help consumers easily identify counterfeit and sub-standard plugs, chargers, and adaptors’ ...


review of Seaward Apollo 400

Seaward Apollo 400 Review

Seaward have recently introduced a new model to their Apollo range of PAT testers and describe it as ‘A straightforward, no-nonsense PAT tester’ ...


exploding counterfeit fuse

Counterfeit BS1362 Fuses

One aspect of PAT testing that is becoming an increasing problem is identifying counterfeit equipment. Trading Standards report that counterfeit fuses "may explode violently and ...


calibrating PAT test instruments

PAT Tester Calibration

Where, how, and when should you have your PAT tester calibrated ...


leakage current test display

Leakage Current Testing

The most frequently asked technical question we receive is regarding equipment failing a leakage test ...


copies of the IET Code of Practice

Changes to the IET Code of Practice

We often get asked if it's okay to use an earlier version of the Code of Practice for the City & Guilds course, so I thought it would be useful to look at the changes ...


DIY checkbox for PAT test instrument

DIY Checkbox Build

Commercial checkboxes are available, but you can easily and cheaply make a checkbox yourself. You just need a few resistors to test the readings for the earth continuity and ...


BS1362 plug adaptor

Non-UK plugs and Adaptors

Unlike most other countries, the UK uses ring circuits. The ring circuit is designed to supply a large number of socket outlets and is usually protected by a circuit breaker rated ...


test on 110V transformer

PAT Testing 110V Equipment

A centrally tapped 110V transformer provides a split phase which reduces the line-to-earth voltage to just 55V. As the majority of electric shocks are caused by ...


counterfeit ac adapters

Tips to identify counterfeit chargers

Cheap counterfeit mobile phone chargers and other ac adapters are widely sold online via sites like Ebay. As these plastic encased devices have no metallic parts to ...


laptop charger

Testing Class I appliances with no exposed metalwork

We often find class I equipment with no obvious exposed metalwork to connect the earth bond clip and get asked how ...


basic appliance checker

Pass / Fail PAT Testers

There are a number of test instruments available with single button operation that provide a simple pass or fail result. These testers usually carry out the basic earth continuity and ...


example of a fake CE mark

CE Marking

The CE mark is widely abused, especially on cheap Chinese imports, and this can help identify possible counterfeit and ...


City & Guilds qualified logo

Using the City & Guilds Qualified Logo

A City & Guilds qualification shows that you have the ability to do a job to an industry recognised standard. Using the City & Guilds Qualified logo on your website ...


a plug missing the protective sleeves

Nonsleeved plugs

In 1984 BS1363 was amended with a requirement that the line and neutral pins should have an insulation sleeve. 30 plus years later, equipment fitted with nonsleeved plugs is still in use ...


electrical test on medical equipment

PAT Testing Medical Equipment

Medical electrical equipment is not subject to the standard PAT testing procedures outlined in the IET Code of Practice. Medical equipment should ...


example of insulation test fail

Insulation test warning

When carrying out an insulation test it's important that the appliance is switched on. If the main switch is in the off position, any fault ...


conformity marks on a laptop charger

Conformity marks

This laptop charger has a confusing array of 20 certification, conformity, and approval marks crammed on the back, so what are they ...


earth continuity limit calculator

Earth Continuity Limit

Earth continuity readings higher than the (0.1 + R)Ω limit are often due to problems with the test procedure, rather than the appliance itself ...


tools for wiring a plug

How to wire a plug

A common cause of electrical faults is an incorrectly wired plug. Wiring a plug is not difficult however it is important to get it right ...


label printer connected to a PAT tester

PAT Label Printers

We occasionally receive requests to supply or recommend a pat tester that can print a label. Fluke, Megger, Metrel, and Seaward all have ...


example of a counterfeit plug

New Counterfeit Plug Type

We have recently become aware of a new type of counterfeit BS1363 plug entering the UK market from China. This is a rewirable plug with ...


electric shock warning

Electric Shock

The severity of an electric shock is largely dependant amount of energy delivered to the body. This is a function of the magnitude of the current and the length of time the current flows ...


Bosch, Beko and Hotpoint product recalls

The Electrical Product Recall System

Research by Electrical Safety First estimates there are around 4 million recalled electrical appliances still being used in UK homes and businesses. The average success rate of a product recall is just 10% to 20% ...


testing a microwave oven

Microwave Leakage Testing

Previously microwave leakage testing was part of the standard PAT test. This requirement was removed from the Code of Practice when it was updated from the 3rd to the 4th edition ...


typical PAT label

PAT testing - Legal Requirement

All electrical equipment used in the workplace must be maintained in a safe condition to meet the legal requirements of the Electricity at Work Regulations ...


museum of domestic plugs

Plug Museums

I have recently come across a couple of websites that are well worth mentioning here. The first is the Digital Museum of Plugs and Sockets ...


BS1361 fuses

Fuse Ratings

We often get questions about fuse ratings. The general advice is: If it has a moulded (non-rewirable) plug fitted, the easiest way is to check the ...


main switch

Fixed Equipment Isolation

The in-service inspection and testing of electrical equipment is almost always referred to as ‘portable appliance testing’ or ‘PAT testing’. Unfortunately this often leads to confusion about what equipment needs to be tested ...


second hand kettle

Second-Hand Electrical Appliances

If you supply or sell second hand electrical equipment it must be safe and meet the requirements of The Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994 ...


electrical quiz

Electrical Quiz

Test your basic electrical knowledge - 10 multiple choice questions on Power, Voltage, Current & Ohm's Law...


example of appliance types

Types of Electrical Equipment

There is a common misunderstanding that only portable equipment needs to be PAT tested. It’s easy to see how this has come about, after all PAT stands for portable appliance testing...


test frequency table

Assessing the frequency of PAT Inspection & Testing

The frequency of PAT testing is based on a risk assessment approach. There are no set limits on how often equipment should be tested ...